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On other occasions, elements of music notation are treated as inline characters in running text. In fact, several commercial, academic and standard bodies have developed digital representations of music notation, and given the topic's complexity, these representations often focus on different aspects and adopt different methodologies. Therefore, notatedMusic only defines a container element to encode the occurrence of music notation and allows linking to the data format preferred by the encoder. Note: notatedMusic is not the same as musicNotation , a metadata element, which is used to describe musical notation that appears in a manuscript.

See 10 Manuscript Description. The notatedMusic element may contain a textual description and pointers to various representations of the music notation in different media. An external representation of the notated music is specified using the ptr element, whose target attribute provides its electronically-accessible location.

For example:. A textual description of the notation can be provided within the desc element; alternatively, a label may be supplied. It is possible to link to any kind of music notation data format. However, when a MIME type is not available, it is recommended that the format be specified in the description. See the following examples. It is possible to specify the location of digital objects representing the notated music in other media such as images or audio-visual files. The interpretation of the correspondence between the notated music and these digital objects is not encoded explicitly.

Introduction to WebCGM

We recommend the use of graphic and binaryObject mainly as a fallback mechanism when the notated music format is not displayable by the application using the encoding. The alignment of encoded notated music, images carrying the notation, and audio files is a complex matter for which we refer the reader to other formats and specifications such as MPEG-SMR. It is also recommended, when useful, to embed XML-based music notation formats, such as the Music Encoding Initiative format as content of notatedMusic. This must be done by means of customization.

In this cases, we recommend the inclusion of notatedMusic in figure in order to encode possible captions and headers. The following special purpose elements are used to indicate the presence of graphic images within a document:. The graphic and binaryObject elements form part of the common core module, and are discussed in section 3.

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Where the graphic itself contains large amounts of text, perhaps with a complex structure, and perhaps difficult to distinguish from the graphic, the encoder should choose whether to regard the graphic as containing the text in which case, a nested floatingText element may be included within the figure element or to regard the enclosed text as being a separate division of the text element in which the graphic appears. In this latter case, an appropriate div or div1 etc. The choice will depend to a large degree on the encoder's understanding of the relationship between the graphic and the surrounding text.

Like any other element in the TEI scheme, figures may be given identifiers so that they can be aligned with other elements, and linked to or from them, as described in chapter 16 Linking, Segmentation, and Alignment. Some common examples are discussed briefly here; full information is provided in that chapter. Another common requirement is to associate part or the whole of an image with a textual element not necessarily contiguous to it in the text; this is sometimes known as a callout.

When the module for transcription is included in a schema, specific attributes for parts of a text and parts or all of a digital image are available; these are discussed in In addition, chapter 16 Linking, Segmentation, and Alignment may be consulted for other mechanisms available for this purpose. The application may be thought of as a hypertext browser in which the user selects from a graphic image which part of a text to read next, but the mechanism is independent of this particular application.

In this example, the SVG representation of the graphic is stored externally to the TEI document and linked by means of a pointer. Like other customizations of the TEI scheme, this is carried out using the techniques documented in section 1. The first major distinction in graphic representation is that between raster graphics and vector graphics. A raster image is a list of points, or dots. Scanners, fax machines and other simple devices easily produce digital raster images, and such images are therefore quite common. A vector image , in contrast, is a list of geometrical objects, such as lines, circles, arcs, or even cubes.

These are much more difficult to produce, and so are mainly encountered as the output of sophisticated systems such as architectural and engineering CAD programs. Raster images are difficult to modify because by definition they only encode single points: a line, for example, cannot grow or shrink as such, since it is not identified as such. Only its component parts are identified, and only they can be manipulated.

Therefore the resolution or dot-size of a raster image is important, which is not the case with vector images. It is also far more difficult to convert raster images to vector images than to perform the opposite conversion. Raster images generally require more storage space than vector images, and a wide variety of methods exists for compressing them; the variation in these methods leads to corresponding variations in representations for storage and transmission of raster images. Motion video usually consists of a long series of raster images. Data compression is even more effective on video than on single raster images mainly owing to redundancy which arises from the usual similarity of adjacent frames.

Notations for representing full-motion video are hotly debated at this time, and any user of these Guidelines would do well to obtain up-to-date expert advice before undertaking a project using them. Methods for lossy compression save space by discarding a small portion of the image's detail, such as fine distinctions of shading. When decompressed, therefore, such an image will be only a close approximation of the original.

In contrast, lossless compression guarantees that the exact uncompressed image will be reproducible from the compressed form: only truly redundant information is removed. In general, therefore, lossless compression does not save quite so much space as lossy compression, though it does guarantee fidelity to the original uncompressed image. Raster images may be characterized by their resolution , which is the number of dots per inch used to represent the image.

Introduction

Doubling the resolution will give a more precise image, but also quadruple the storage requirement before compression , and affect processing time for any operations to be performed, such as displaying an image for a reader. Motion video also has resolution in time: the number of frames to be shown per second. Encoders should consider carefully what resolution s and frame rate s to use for particular applications; these Guidelines express no recommendation in this matter, save the universal ones of consistency and documentation.

follow site However, graphic notations vary in whether coordinates count from left-to-right and top-to-bottom, or another way. They also vary in whether coordinates are considered real inches, millimeters, and so on , or virtual dots. These Guidelines do not recommend any of these methods over another, but all decisions made should be applied consistently, and documented in the encodingDesc section of the TEI header.

Methods of aligning images and text are discussed in The chromatic values of an image may be rendered in many different ways.

In monochrome images every displayed point is either black or white. In grayscale images, each point is rendered in some shade of gray, the number of shades varying from system to system. In true polychrome images, points are rendered in different hues, again with varying limitations affecting the number of distinct shades and the means by which they are displayed. As noted above, there exists a wide variety of different graphics formats, and the following list is in no way exhaustive.


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Moreover, inclusion of any format in this list should not be taken as indicating endorsement by the TEI of this format or any products associated with it. Some of the formats listed here are proprietary to a greater or lesser extent and cannot therefore be regarded as standards in any meaningful sense. They are however widely used by many different vendors. The following formats are widely used at the present time, and likely to remain supported by more than one vendor's software:. Brief descriptions of all the above are given below. Where possible, current addresses or other contact information are shown for the originator of each format.

Addresses may be found in any standard organizational directory for the country in question. The selection and combination of modules to form a TEI schema is described in 1. Last updated on 16th July , revision daa3cc0b9. The following simple example demonstrates how the data presented as a labelled list in section 3. The content of a table cell need not be simply character data.


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The content of table elements is not limited to head and row. Over time, the format has been further developed in various standards to improve usability in practice. All define with varying degrees of restriction which components of a PDF are absolutely necessary or even prohibited for long-term PDF archiving. In addition, the text modules must have Unicode representation in order to be reproducible forever.

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Level A Accessible offers clear visual reproducibility, including the ability to map text to Unicode and structure the content of the document in terms of accessibility.