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About Sidney P. Sidney P. Books by Sidney P. Trivia About Methods in Enzymo No trivia or quizzes yet. Welcome back. A cell must decide which DNA to use to make the proteins it needs to be that cell. For example, all muscle cells skeletal, smooth, and cardiac have both actin and myosin that help them contract, but the mechanism of contraction is different in different cells: cardiac and skeletal muscle use tropomyosin and smooth muscle doesn't.
Since smooth muscle doesn't need tropomyosin to be able to contract, it doesn't make the tropomyosin protein. This activity allows students to understand that different genes are expressed in different tissues and therefore different proteins are present. Protein Evolution: Mutations in an organism's DNA can change its characteristics, and these characteristics can help the organism to survive and reproduce.
Sometimes, organisms can change so much over many generations that their offspring become a new species. Some of their DNA and proteins will be very different, and some will be the same. Students can analyze muscle tissue from different species to correlate relatedness, by evaluating protein profiles and looking for proteins that are the same in all the species and proteins that are different. Microarray: Students will monitor the gene expression of numerous genes using a technique called microarray analysis.
The class can analyze the difference in gene expression in breast caner tissue and compare that to non-cancer tissue. Students will learn about how cells control their expression of genes, what kinds of regulations are necessary and what genes and pathways are affected in cancer cells. Alternatively the class can analyze the difference in gene expression in the leaves of a plant that has been heat stressed versus not stressed.
Students normalize cultures of Penicillium fungi green bread mold as well as bacterial specis Staphylococcus epidermidis, Microcuccus luteus, and Enterobacter aerogenes using spectrophotometry before co-culturing the fungus with the bacteria to witness the antibiotic effect. This activity can be used to visualize that different genes are expressed in different tissues and therefore different proteins are present, using different tissues from a single animal for example cow--skeletal, smooth, cardiac, kidney, liver tongue, cheek, and brain.
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Alternatively, students can analyze muscle tissue from different species to correlate relatedness, by evaluating protein profiles and looking for proteins that are the same in all the species and proteins that are different for example different fish. In order to make any quantitative analysis of the results of SDS-PAGE, students need to load equivalent total protein for each of the protein samples on the gel. The rest of the activity is the same as the description above. Take your students to the next level of protein analysis with Western Blot, and test for a specific protein in tissue.
In this investigation students extract proteins from cow--skeletal, smooth, cardiac, kidney, liver tongue, cheek, and brain, determine the protein concentration of their extracts, separate proteins based on size on SDS-PAGE, transfer the proteins to nitrocellulose and probe with an antibody against alpha-actin. Cellobiase is and enzyme involved in the last step of the process of breaking down cellulose , a molecule made up of bundled long chains of glucose that are found in plant cell walls, to glucose. This is a natural process that is used by many fungi as well as bacteria to produce glucose as a food source.
Students will use fungi white mushroom to extract cellobiase and measure enzyme activity. Students can also alter enzyme activity but changing temperature, changing pH, and changing salt concentration. This lab activity lends itself for scientific method of making hypotheses and testing them.
A Looping-Based Model for Quenching Repression
If your school has spectrophometers with cuvette holders then you can use this version of the lab. If you have the old Spec 20s and use a glass culture tube, then you will need the four ml version below. Students can grow either corn or soy bean which have been genetically modified along side a non modified control and use PCR to detect a piece of the GM DNA. Most GM plants use the strong constitutive 35S promoter, which will be used for PCR amplification to determine whether the plant has been modified.
This activity allows students to understand the use of PCR as a detection tool, as well as the specificity of primers. Students can test various foods to determine if it has been genetically modified using the same PCR analysis in the above lab activity. Food sources with readily amplifiable GM DNA include most processed corn products, such as corn tortilla, tamales, and masa, and papaya.
Extra Reading. Extra reading for GMO lab activities:. Extra material for C. Middle School Activities. How do you purify DNA from cells? How is DNA evidence prepared and analyzed in a crime case? Students perform agarose gel electrophoresis to analyze DNA dye simulation samples from a mock crime scene. Based on DNA fingerprinting profiles with dyes simulated to represent the DNA a comparison is made to the crime scene, students determine which suspect likely committed the crime.
Jillian a student at Cactus High School in Peoria. Her middle school class learned about PTC tasting when her class learned about traits. As it turned out, she was not a taster. In high school, Jillian decided to get some PTC paper and have her family do the taste test, and draw a family tree based on the tasting data.click
Systematic genome sequence differences among leaf cells within individual trees
Surprisingly, everyone in her family is a taster, her mother, her father, both her brothers, even her grandparents and aunt and uncle. Jillian was quite perplexed.
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Is it genetically possible that she is not a PTC taster? A patient and his wife come in to see you with a concern. In this activity students will simulate the work of Gregor Mendel to investigate how traits are inherited. Click here to access Cooties web site. Students will simulate the outbreak of a viral disease in the classroom starting with one individual that is infected.